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Jiu De and Jiu Li in traditional culture

Historically, Confucianism is regarded as an orthodox view of governing the country, and the custom of wine is also influenced by Confucian wine culture. Confucianism pays attention to the word “Jiu De”. The word Ji De is first seen in “Shang Shu” and “Book of Songs”. It means that the drinking person must have virtue, and it cannot be “subverted the virtue, deserted in wine” like king of Xia Ying. Concentrated reflects the Confucian alcohol, this is: “Drinking the only sacrifice” (can only drink while sacrificing); “Drinking);” Drinking “(prohibiting the people from drinking alcohol); Confucianism does not oppose drinking, sacrifice to respect God with wine, and pension and guests, all virtue.


As a culture of food, drinking has formed a etiquette that everyone must follow in ancient times. Sometimes this etiquette is very cumbersome. However, if you do not follow some important occasions, there will be suspicion of criminal chaos. And because of excessive drinking, it cannot be made by itself. It is easy to make trouble. It is important to formulate drinking etiquette. Yuan Hongdao in the Ming Dynasty saw that the wine was not observed when drinking, and felt that the elders had the responsibility. Therefore, a lot of information was collected from the ancient books, and a special article was written. Although this is written for the drinker order, it also has a certain significance for ordinary drinkingrs. There are some etiquette in ancient Chinese drinking:

When the owner and guests drink together, they must kneel each other. The juniors drank in front of the elders, called the servant drinking, and usually kneeling to worship, and then sitting in the second seat. The elders ordered the juniors to drink, and the juniors can raise it; the wine in the elders has not finished drinking, and the juniors cannot drink it first.
There are about four steps of drinking in ancient drinking: worship, sacrifice, 啐, and died. Just first make a worship, respect the respect, and then pour the wine a little to the ground, thank you to the earth’s ethics; then taste the taste of the wine, and praise it to make the owner happy;

At the banquet, the owner should toast (called) to the guests, and the guests should pay back to the host (called 酢), and toasting a few words of toasting. Better can also be toasting each other (called paid). Sometimes toasting (called Xingjiu) in turn. When toasting, toasting and toasting are “avoided” and stand up. Ordering is three cups.

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